In order to learn a language, you must not be afraid to ask for clarification or to say what you need and what problems you are encountering so that the native speaker of English will know what you want them to do. ESL teachers should teach their students how and when to use the following structures. Give a scenario and let the students act the scenes with a classmate or with you using the language structures below. Some of the structures mean the same thing.

1.) I’m sorry, but I don’t understand.
2.) I speak English, but not so well.
3.) Please say that again.
4.) Please repeat.
5.) Please speak slowly.
6.) Your accent is a bit hard to understand.
7.) What do you mean by (spoken word)?
8.) Can you explain to me in simple English?
9.) What is the meaning of (spoken word)?
10.) Please give the meaning of (spoken word).
11.) Please explain it to me in simple English.
12.) What is this/that in English? (You need to show or point to the object or act out an action or feeling.)
13.) How do you say this/that in English? (You need to write the word. This structure can also be used when showing or pointing to an object or a word.)

LEVEL: Nursery/Kinder

OBJECTIVES: The pupils should be able to:

1. identify primary and secondary colors
2. identify objects having primary and secondary colors
3. draw and color their drawings to make a color book (kinder)
4. draw and color their drawings on a piece of oslo paper (nursery)

MATERIALS: Bond paper (cut into 1/2 crosswise), pencils, crayons, stapler, oslo paper, colorful objects (primary and secondary colors only), magic box or magic basket for the colorful objects

TIME FRAME: Around 30 to 40 minutes

PROCEDURE:

1.) Show a big picture of a rainbow to the pupils. Ask them what they see. If they say “rainbow” or “colors” or “red,” accept the answers. If they cannot give the correct ones, you can give the name of the rainbow and the different colors by pointing to each one. No need to tell the students yet about the difference between primary and secondary colors. Kinder-level pupils are expected to know more than nursery-level pupils. If you know a rainbow song, sing it or make one using the melody of a nursery rhyme song.

2.) Show the colorful objects that you have with you one at a time. Make sure to say first that you have a magic box or magic basket that has colorful objects inside. Make it dramatic for the pupils. Ask the pupils to give the name of the object and the color.

3. ) Play the game “Touch the Color” and ask the students to touch any object inside the room, even their clothes, that has the color you will mention. Make sure you put the colorful objects all over the room to add to the things the pupils can touch.

4. ) For kinder pupils, model how to make a color book. Ask the class to name objects that are red. Start by saying, “Strawberries are red. Some apples are red.” Let them pattern their answers after your sentence. Prompt them if needed. Draw the answers on different pieces of bond paper to show them how to go about it. Then, show them how to color each drawing.

5.) For nursery pupils, model how to make a color sheet. Ask the class to name objects that are red and let them pattern theri answers after your sentence. Draw the answers on a piece of oslo paper to show them how to go about it. Then, show them how to color each object.

6.) For kinder pupils, distribute pieces of bond paper, 1/2 crosswise to the pupils and tell them to choose their favorite color and to think of objects that have that color. They should draw and color those objects. Put a cover and title each color book according to the chosen color (e.g. My Orange Book). Don’t force them to draw too much if they cannot but encourage them to draw at least four objects. Those who want to do more, let them. A variation can be asking them to draw multi-colored objects and to title the booklets as “My Rainbow Book.”

7.) For nursery pupils, distribute oslo paper. Ask them to choose their favorite color and to think of objects with that color. They should draw and color those objects on a sheet of paper. Write the title for them like “My Orange Objects.” You can also make a variation of this activity by asking them to draw objects that are like the colors of the rainbow. Therefore, you must title the work as “My Rainbow Objects.”

8.) Let the pupils exchange work with one another so they can see the work of their classmates. Encourage them to make sentences based on the drawings of their peers.

1.) is/are–The learners are interested. The teacher is tired. God is love. Time is money.
2.) appear-The learners appear interested. The teacher appears tired.
3.) become–The learners become interested. The teacher becomes tired.
4.) feel–The learners feel interested. The teacher feels tired.
5.) look–The learners look interested. The teacher looks tired.
6.) remain–The learners remain interested. The teacher remains tired.
7.) seem–The learners seem interested. The teacher seems tired.
8.) grow–The teacher grows tired of the learners.
9.) prove–The teacher proves weary of all the workload.
10.) turn–Dictators turn tyrants.

1.) Personal Pronoun–I, we, you, he, she, it, they, my, mine, our, ours, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, their, theirs, me, us, him, her, them
e.g. I love you.

2.) Demonstrative Pronoun–this, that, these, those
e.g. Give these to the man. Give these clothes to the man.

3.) Indefinite Pronoun–all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, each one, either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, least, many, more, most, much, neither, none, no one, nobody, nothing, one, other, several, some, somebody, something
e.g. Somebody must know something.

4.) Relative Pronoun–who, which, that, what, whose, of which, of that, of what, whom
e.g. The boy saw the girl who stole the candies. (This pronoun acts as the subject or object in a subordinate clause.)

5.) Interrogative Pronoun–who, which, what, whose, of which, of what, whom
e.g. Who stole the candies? (This pronoun begins an interrogative sentence.)

6.) Numerical Pronoun–one, two, three, etc., first, second, third, etc.
e.g. Two of the boys tackled the fifth.

7.) Reflexive Pronoun–myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself, ourselves, yourselves themselves
e.g. He loves himself. (This pronoun is used as an object.)

8.) Intensive Pronoun–myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
e.g. They, themselves, lack knowledge. They lacked knowlege themselves. (This pronoun is used to emphasize and is an appositive.)

9.) Reciprocal Pronoun–each other, one another
e.g. They love each other.

LEVEL: Intermediate

OBJECTIVES: The students should be able to:

1. write an 8-paragraph narrative
2. illustrate each paragraph inside a story wheel

MATERIALS: Big pieces of construction paper or any board paper the size of a tabloid newspaper, brass fasteners, rulers, pencils, pens, crayons, cut-out circles the size of a CD, chart paper with a big circle drawn on it for presentation purposes, chalk/whiteboard marker, board, easel, marking pens

TIME FRAME: 90 minutes (can be broken down into two sessions of 45 minutes each)

PROCEDURE:

1.) Brainstorm a story with the class so you can model how to write a narrative. Tell them that they should help write the storyline using 8 paragraphs (doesn’t have to be too long). The story can be a fantasy, a fable, an action story, a sci-fi story, a love story,

2.) Write their answers on the board and prompt them to add details by asking questions about how the plot should unfold, how the characters look like, how the characters behave, etc..

3.) Let the class copy the story from the board before they read the finished story aloud.

4.) Put the chart paper with the big circle on the board or an easel. Show how to divide the big circle into eight equal parts. Tell them that they need to illustrate each paragraph inside the wheel. Symbolism can be used. Illustrations should be simple and should not take too long to make. Call volunteers to complete the illustrations. Let them be guided by the paragraphs.

5.) Explain how they will make a story wheel by showing the materials needed and by demonstrating how to do it. Use the brass fastener to place the story wheel on the top portion of the big construction paper. See the picture above.

Note: This can be the end of the first session. As their homework, they should think of a story they would like to narrate and illustrate.

6.) Pair off the students. Each pair will write and illustrate their story. Let the pairs brainstorm what story they prefer to write about. Ask them to make a rough draft first before transferring the final product to the big construction paper. If a student wants to work independently, give him or her that freedom. Move around to help each pair or individual.

7.) Form a big circle and let each pair read the work of another pair by passing the finished project counter-clockwise.

LEVEL: Intermediate

OBJECTIVES: The students should be able to:

1. identify opposite ideas
2. give examples of antonyms, adjectives, and -ing verbs (participle)
2. write nouns, adjectives and verbs to complete a diamond poem
3. illustrate their diamond poem

MATERIALS: board, chalk or whiteboard marker, bond paper, pencils, strips of paper for the language games, crayons or colored pencils, ruler

TIME FRAME: 90 minutes (can be broken down into two sessions of 45 minutes each)

PROCEDURE:

1.) Play language games in preparation for the diamond poem.

1.1 Noun Game (opposites)—Have two teams if the class size is small and more than two teams if the class size is bigger. All members will take turns giving the answers by writing the answers on the board within 3 seconds. Show prepared nouns one at a time. The students will give the opposite of or in contrast to the noun being flashed. Model how to do it first. For ex., the opposite of boy is girl.

Suggested nouns: parents (children), teacher (student), king (queen), water (fire or sand or land), sun (moon or rain or wind), land (sea or sky), summer (winter),
man (woman), pants (skirt), hands (feet), food (drink), father (mother)

1.2 Adjective Game — Retain the same teams or reshuffle the class. The same rules apply. Flash the same set of nouns but this time, the students will give an adjective appropriate to this noun. For ex., an adjective for boy is handsome.

1.3 Verb Game (-ing)—The students will try to give verbs ending in –ing to describe the nouns being flashed. For ex., an –ing verb to describe boy is growing. The same rules apply.

2.) Tell the class they will help you make a diamond poem based on the words they have given you during the language games. Ask a student to pick a noun and prompt them so they can give you the answers to complete a diamond poem. Ask the class after the composition of the diamond poem why it is called a diamond poem (because of the shape).

Line 1—A noun (the subject)
Line 2—Two adjectives describing the subject
Line 3—Three verbs ending in –ing that describe the subject (participle)
Line 4—Two words related to the subject and two words related to the opposite
subject (line 7)
Line 5—Three verbs ending in –ing that describe the opposite subject (line 7)
Line 6—Two adjectives describing the opposite subject
Line 7—Opposite subject (a noun)

(Note: This can be the end of the first session.)

3.) Pair off the students. Each pair will write and illustrate their diamond poem. They can choose from the set of nouns used during the game or they can make their own. Ask them to make a rough draft first before transferring the final product to a piece of bond paper. If a student wants to work independently, give him or her that freedom. Move around to help each pair or individual.

4.) Before the reading of the diamond poems, tell the class that they will vote for the most interesting diamond poem by using a ballot. Ask the pairs and individuals to read their respective diamond poems.

5.) Let the students cast their votes anonymously and tally the results. It is up to you to decide on the form of reward you would like to give the winning pair or individual (e.g. candies, bonus points, token prizes, teacher-made certificates to show to their parents, etc.). In case of a tie, reward all winners.

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